There are 14 zones either operating or expected to be operating soon in the UK. Most are Class D zones in which certain cars, buses and commercial vehicles are charged fees, but five are Class B or C zones where fees are not charged on cars.
As of summer 2023, the clean air zones are:
The Bath CAZ came into force in January 2021. It’s a Class C CAZ that doesn’t include cars or motorbikes.
Birmingham’s scheme started in June 2021. As a Class D CAZ, it includes cars. Non-compliant cars are charged at £8 a day.
Bradford’s local authority describes its CAZ as Class C+, which means all non-compliant vehicles are charged except passenger cars and motorbikes. The scheme started in September 2022.
Bristol’s Class D CAZ went live in November 2022. Non-compliant cars are charged £9 a day.
The ULEZ in London operates under Class D rules and was introduced in 2019. Non-compliant cars are charged £12.50 a day, so making sure your car is ULEZ-compliant could save you money. The boundary of the ULEZ expand on August 29, 2023.
Manchester was set to implement a Class C CAZ in 2022, but the scheme was put on hold by the Government and is under review after a public backlash.
Newcastle and Gateshead
Tyneside’s Class C CAZ became active in January 2023. Cars are exempt, but non-compliant vans, taxis and minibuses are subject to a £12.50 daily charge.
The Sheffield CAZ went live in February 2023. It’s a Class C zone, which means cars are exempt, but non-compliant vans, minibuses and taxis face a £10 charge per day.
The Zero Emission Zone (ZEZ) in Oxford is active as a pilot scheme in a small area of the city centre, but there are plans to expand it. Only zero-emission cars are exempt, while all other vehicles pay between £2 and £10 a day. Those charges are set to double from August 2025.
In effect since November 2021, Portsmouth’s Class B CAZ doesn’t apply to private cars and vans. However, non-compliant taxis and private hire vehicles must pay £10 a day.
Glasgow’s Low Emission Zone (LEZ) went active from June 2023. Non-compliant vehicles are in line with Class D CAZ rules, although residents have a grace period until 31 May 2024 before they’re fined. There are no charges for non-compliant vehicles, just a straight penalty of £60. The charge is doubled for each subsequent offence, capped at £480 for cars and vans.
The Dundee LEZ has been active since May 2022, but isn’t being enforced until 30 May 2024. The rules and penalties are the same as for other Scottish LEZs.
Aberdeen is also not enforcing its LEZ immediately. It went active in May 2022 but no penalties will be issued until 1 June 2024.
The LEZ in Edinburgh went live in May 2022 and, as with Aberdeen and Dundee, is penalty free until 1 June 2024.